Demand response (DR) technologies have long been considered a valuable resource for providing capacity services to the bulk power system during system peaks or contingency events. Over the last several years, DR technology advancements have expanded the services that DR can provide to the grid. For example, Automated Demand Response (ADR) facilitates the control and response capabilities of a myriad of end-uses through embedded logic and smart algorithms in the controls, which enable automated response within seconds or minutes with virtually no human interaction. This advancement has created opportunities to control end-use loads for services beyond just capacity, including fast and flexible response services, such as ancillary services (AS) or regulation reserves.
A growing body of research assesses DR opportunities and the bulk power systems services that these resources can provide. Most of that research focuses on evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) of specific DR technology performance, but little of the work provides cost data for the DR enabling technologies. Where research and data on DR enabling technology costs does exist in the literature, it is largely disparate and not comprehensively reported.
This research evaluates, organizes, and summarizes the enablement costs for a significant number of technologies by end-use and customer sector, the various bulk power system services that each specific technology and end-use can provide, and the total costs to enable a site with the end-use DR technologies. The goal is to provide a robust dataset and discussion of DR technology enablement costs, the technical elements that drive those costs, and the technical characteristics for providing DR services to the bulk power system.
This research describes a variety of DR opportunities and the various bulk power system services they can provide. These bulk power system services are mapped to a generalized taxonomy of DR "service types", which allows us to discuss DR opportunities and bulk power system services in fewer yet broader categories that share similar technological requirements which mainly drive DR enablement costs. The research presents a framework for the costs to automate DR and provides descriptions of the various elements that drive enablement costs. The report introduces the various DR enabling technologies and end-uses, identifies the various services that each can provide to the grid and provides the cost assessment for each enabling technology.
In addition to a report, this research includes a Demand Response Advanced Controls Database and User Manual. They are intended to provide users with the data that underlies this research and instructions for how to use that database more effectively and efficiently.
The report, database, and user manual can be downloaded from: https://emp.lbl.gov/publications/demand-response-advanced-controls
A webinar presentation of key findings from the report will be conducted on Tuesday, September 12 at 11:00am Pacific Time. Register for the webinar here
We appreciate the funding support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.