Building efficiency, electrification, and distributed solar PV bill savings under time-based retail rate designs

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Building energy technologies and distributed generation, including energy efficiency (EE), distributed solar PV (DPV), and building electrification, are critical to meeting decarbonization goals. Rate design may play an important role in determining the customer economics of adopting these technologies, but it is unclear whether – and to what extent – current rate design trends support or impede progress toward these goals. In this study, we answer these questions by quantifying the range of residential customer bill impacts of EE, DPV, and building electrification investments under current and emerging time-based retail electricity rate designs (i.e., time-of-use, event-based pricing, coincident demand charges, and real time pricing). We also compare these customer bill savings to power system and societal benefits and assess how well the investments are compensated relative to the societal value they provide.

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